Democratic Party chapters in 15 states and Puerto Rico have set numerical goals for gay and lesbian delegates at the party's national convention this summer, double the number that set a standard in 2000. The effort comes as same-sex marriage has emerged as a divisive political issue, particularly in Massachusetts, where Democrats will gather in July to choose their presidential nominee. Barring a last-minute ruling, gay marriages will be legal in the state beginning on May 17. Both President Bush and Democratic rival John Kerry oppose same-sex marriages, although the president has backed a federal constitutional amendment that would ban same-sex nuptials. Kerry supports civil unions.
Democrats are determined to ensure that gays and lesbians are part of their convention ranks. Delegates should "look like the nation as whole," said Winnie Stachelberg, political director for the Human Rights Campaign, a gay rights advocacy group. According to the Democratic National Committee, 212 delegates, or roughly 5%, of the more than 4,300 at the party's 2000 convention in Los Angeles
were gay or lesbian. They came from seven states with numerical goals as well as states without. The increase in 2004 is in part "a signal of growing acceptance of gays and lesbians nationwide," said Eric Stern, who directs the DNC's outreach efforts to those groups. Democrats have aggressively courted gay voters and their campaign dollars with a significant amount of success. In 2000 exit polls showed Al Gore got 75% of the votes cast by self-identified gays and lesbians, compared with 25% for Bush.
National convention delegates formally choose a party's presidential nominee. Among Democrats, a DNC panel signs off on a state delegate selection plan, including diversity goals such as the number of blacks and Hispanics or age breakdown. In California the target is 22 gays and 22 lesbians among the 440-member delegation. Rhode Island is seeking one gay man or lesbian among its 32 delegates. Officials are quick to point out that the goals aren't quotas. Neither a state nor a presidential campaign is penalized if they do not reach these goals. However, state delegations are required to have equal numbers of men and women. Party and Kerry campaign officials say they haven't had problems filling
goals. In many cases, parties coordinate with local chapters of gay advocacy groups such as the National Stonewall Democrats to recruit potential delegates.
Generally, application forms to become a delegate include questions about sexual orientation that help state parties and campaign officials determine if they fit a diversity need. Answering is optional, officials say. Rules for the Republican National Convention, to be held in August in New York City, state that participation in primaries and the delegate process "shall in no way be abridged for reasons of sex, race, religion, color, age, or national origin," while encouraging the "broadest possible participation" among all groups. But for the most part numerical goals for delegations to the Republican convention do not exist. Gay and lesbian delegates attended the party's 2000 convention in Philadelphia, said Chris Barron, political director for the Log Cabin Republicans, a gay political group. He did not have precise numbers. "We're happy at the number we are going to have at [this year's] convention," Barron said. "We want the delegates there to be there because of who they are, and not an arbitrary status" like sexual orientation, race, or religion.